The research activity is aimed at performing the thermodynamic analysis of cryogenic systems, in particular methane liquefaction plant (LNG). The main application for the LNG here taken into account is the use as alternative fuel for heavy-duty vehicles. Natural gas is indeed considered an interesting alternative fuel for its reduced environmental impact and the readiness of the necessary technologies. Natural gas as vehicle fuel can be in its compressed form, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), or liquefied, LNG, at about -160°C (Liquefied Natural Gas). Furthermore it can come from fossil fuels, but also from renewable sources, such as biomass decomposition in digestors or landfills (purified biogas). Bio-LNG (BLG) is a renewable fuel with a role in the circular economy contest. In this case purification processes are needed to reach the specification for methane liquefaction. Combined purification and liquefaction through cryogenics processes has been proposed.

The activities performed are mainly:
• Feasibilty analysis of small scale LNG production
• Environmental analysis and LCA of LNG as vehicle fuel
• Design and optimization of novel plants for LNG production


Activities are carried out in the Refrigeration Laboratory.

  1. A. Arteconi, C. Brandoni, D. Evangelista, F. Polonara. Life cycle Greenhouse Gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe, Applied Energy, vol. 87, pp. 2005-2013, 2010, ISSN:0306-2619, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.11.012
  2. A. Arteconi, C. Brandoni, F. Polonara, Micro-Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Plants, Proceedings of 23rd International congress of refrigeration, August 21-26 2011, Prague, Czeck Republic, ISBN 978-2-913-149-89-2, paper 489
  3. A. Arteconi, F. Polonara, LNG as vehicle fuel in Italy, Proceedings of the 12th Cryogenics IIR Conference, Paper 041, September 11-14, 2012, Dresden, Germany, ISBN: 978-2-913149-93-9, ISSN: 0151-1637
  4. A. Arteconi, M. Pacetti, F. Polonara, A techno-economic optimization for micro-scale LNG plants, Proceedings of the 12th Cryogenics IIR Conference, Paper 040, September 11-14, 2012, Dresden, Germany, ISBN: 978-2-913149-93-9, ISSN: 0151-1637
  5. A. Arteconi, F. Polonara, LNG as vehicle fuel and the problem of supply: The Italian case study, Energy Policy, vol. 62, pp. 503 – 512, 2013, ISSN 0301-4215,
  6. A. Arteconi, M. Santolini, C.M. Bartolini, F. Polonara, Optimization of a methane expansion liquefaction cycle for small scale LNG plants, The 13th Cryogenics IIR Conference, Paper 035, Prague, Czech Republic April 7-11, 2014, ISBN: 978-2-36215-002-
  7. A. Arteconi, M. Spitoni, F. Polonara, The feasibility of liquid biogas (LBG) in Italy, Proceedings of 24th International Congress of Refrigeration, August 16-22, 2015, Yokohama, Japan, paper 504
  8. M. Spitoni, X. Xiong, A. Arteconi, C.M. Bartolini, F. Polonara, W. Lin, Biogas purification and liquefaction by means of a criogenic upgrading process, Refrigeration Science and Technology, Volume 22-25-June-2016, 2016, Pages 107-115, 1st International Conference IIR of Cryogenics and Refrigeration Technology, Bucharest, Romania, ICCRT 2016, DOI: 10.18462/IIR.ICCRT.2016.0015
  9. A. Arteconi, M. Spitoni, F. Polonara, F. Spigarelli, The Feasibility of Liquefied Biomethane as Alternative Fuel: A Comparison Between European and Chinese Markets, International Journal of Ambient Energy, 2016, Vol. 38, Issue 5: Europe-China cooperation and competition in the Green Industries, Pages 481-488, ISSN: 01430750, DOI:10.1080/01430750.2016.1191040
  10. M. Spitoni, M. Pierantozzi, G. Comodi, F. Polonara, A. Arteconi. Theoretical evaluation and optimization of a cryogenic technology for carbon dioxide separation and methane liquefaction from biogas, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, vol. 62, pp. 132-143, 2019. ISSN 1875-5100 Doi:
    Research Manager